Q: Is nature-based theory and research on male/female complementarity robust worldwide? Does this research show that male and female brains are different across cultures?

A: For the most part, scientists agree that the answer to both questions is Yes. The male and female brains are both similar and different. Gender differences appear first in nature, then in nurture and culture. From a systems ethology or ethological point of view, the similarities and differences both point to a natural evolutionary source and goal of human gender interdependence: gender complementarity.

Studies and resources in the area of gender difference and gender complementarity are collected on this website. This list is not exhaustive, but is substantial. We will keep adding to it as we can. It is possible that some of the references are not in exact alphabetical order. We apologize for this inconvenience.

Additional note:  In February 2017, Dr. Gurian added new resources and references gathered for his latest book.  Please see the initial section of this web page for that research.

Please also see David Geary, Evolution of Sex Differences in Trait- and Age-Specific Vulnerabilities, Perspectives in Psychological Science, Vol. 11(6) 2016 for nearly 200 more up-to-date clinical studies and references.

Kerr, B.A. and Multon, K.D. “The Development of Gender Identity, Gender Roles, and Gender Relations in Gifted Students,” Journal of Counseling and Development, April 2015, Vol 3: 163-191.

National Science Foundation (2003).  “Gender Differences in the careers of academic scientists and engineers.” Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf03322/pdf/nsf03322.pdf.

Melissa Healy, “U.S. Tops in Mass Shootings,” Los Angeles Times, August 26, 2015.

Ann Case and Angus Deaton, “Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, November 2015, 15078-15083.

Alyssa L. Norris, et al. “Homosexuality as a Discrete Class,” Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26, 1843-1853.

Baily., J.M., et al. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Sexual Orientation and its Correlates in an Australian Twin Sample,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, Vol. 78, 524-536.

Fergusson, D.M., et al. “Sexual Orientation and Mental Health in a Birth Cohort of Young Adults,” Psychological Medicine, 2005, Vol. 35, 971-981.

Peters, M., et al. “The Effects of Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Digit ratio (2D:4D) on Mental Rotation Performance,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2007, Vol. 36, 251-260.

Sanders, A.R., et al. “Genome-wide Scan Demonstrates Significant Linkage for Male Sexual Orientation,” Psychological Medicine, 2015, Vol. 45, 1379-1388.

Jennifer Peltz, “New York Moves to Stop LGBT ‘Conversion Therapy,” Associated Press, February 6, 2016.

Robert Lee Hotz, “China Genetically Modifies Monkeys to Aid Autism Study,” Wall Street Journal, January 26, 2016.

Robert M. Sapolsky, “Sperm Can Carry Dad’s Stress as Well as Genes,” Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2014.

Simon Makin, “What Really Causes Autism,” Scientific American Mind, November/December, 2015.

Nutrient Power is a book by Dr. William J. Walsh, the founder, and a very fascinating book.

The September/October 2015 edition of Family Therapy is devoted to looking at a number of the issues regarding medication.  If you have a child on medication, you might especially find this article useful: “Children, Adolescents, and Psychiatric Drugs,” by Dr. Jacqueline A. Sparks.

Melvin Konner, “A Better World Ruled by Women?” The Wall Street Journal, March 7, 2015, and Melvin Konner, “Matriarchy on the March,” The Wall Street Journal, March 28-29, 2015.  Dr. Konner, an evolutionary biologist, makes a number of important points, including the fact that the SRY chromosome, which is linked to shorter life span, a greater probability of death due to accidents, and to a greater likelihood of being both a victim and perpetrator of violence, is also present in 90 percent of our incarcerated individuals, and most of these are, of course, men.

Stephen Wilson, “IOC Relaxes Transgender Guidelines for Athletes,” Associated Press, January 25, 2016.

Isen, Joshua D., et al. “Aggressive-Antisocial Boys Develop into Physically Strong Young Men,” Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26(4), pp. 444-455.

Ronal Serpas, “Understanding Violence as a ‘Contagion’,” The Wall Street Journal, April 6, 2015.

Scott Maben, “Boy Had Thought About Killing,” The Spokesman-Review, January 16, 2016.

Jennifer Sullivan, “Families File Claim for Shooting,” The Spokesman-Review, January 10, 2016.

Thomas F. Denson, “Naturally Nasty,” Journal of the Association for Psychological Science,” January 2014 – Vol 27, No 1.

Scott Maben, “Zombie Fears Fueled Slayings, CdA Teenager’s Lawyer Argues,” The Spokesman-Review, January 14, 2016.

Editorial Staff, “How Much Do We Care About Ending the Carnage?” The Spokesman-Review, June 21, 2015.

Charlene M. Alexander, et al. “Adolescent Dating Violence:  Application of a U.S. Primary Prevention Program in St. Lucia,” Journal of Counseling and Development, October 2014, Vol. 92, 489-498

Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA. “History of Violence as a Public Health Issue.” AMA Virtual Mentor, February 2009. Volume 11, No. 2: 167-172. Available on-line at http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2009/02/mhst1-0902.html.

See also “Lighter Penalties for Those with ‘Violent Genes’,” by Melvin Konner, The Wall Street Journal, July 23-24, 2016.  Dr. Konner analyzes the role of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene, which helps process dopamine, and the enzyme linked to violence, as well as the connection of both to ventral striatum processing in the brain.  Bringing together new studies from Finland, the U.S., and Canada, he provides a helpful summary of the research connecting genetics and violence.  He also notes a theme we will look at in Chapter 4—the link between alcohol and substance abuse (and the genetics related to alcohol and drug use) and violence.

Khullar, Dhruv and Jena, Anupam B. “Homicide’s Role in the Racial Life-Expectancy Gap,” The Wall Street Journal, April 28, 2016

Gapp, Katharina, et al. including Isabelle M. Mansuy, “Implication of sperm RNAs in transgenerational inheritance of the effects of early trauma in mice,” Nature Neuroscience, March 2014, Vol. 17, 667–669.

Lisa Gillespie, “Struggles Now—And Later,” Tribune News Service, March 8, 2106.

Robert M. Sapolsky, “The Price of Poverty for a Developing Brain,” The Wall Street Journal, April 12-13, 2016.

Jane E. Brody, “A Mysterious Rise in Type 1 Diabetes,” The New York Times, April 21, 2015.  The title of this article implies that it is only about Diabetes, but in fact the article goes into helpful depth on new genetics based research on the effects of stress on juveniles and adults, i.e. how stress affects epigenetics.

Roxanne Nelson, “Violence as an Infectious Disease,” Medscape Medical News, April 29, 2013.

Manuel Jimenez, “Kindergartners with Traumatic Life Experiences Struggle More in School,” Healthday News, January 15, 2016.

Brand, C.R., et al. “Personality and General Intelligence.” In G.L. Van Heck, P. Bonaiuto, I.J. Deary & W. Nowack (eds.), Personality Psychology in Europe 4, 203-228. Tilburg University Press.  1993.

Steven Pinker, “The Genetics of IQ,” The Wall Street Journal, January 2, 2016.

Shihui Han, “Making Sense,” Association for Psychological Science, December 2015, Vol. 28, 10.

Frank Griffits, et al. including Kathryn Boak McPherson, Why Teens Fail, Phoenix: Be the One, 2012.

For more on obesity genetics, see: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21717811.

Andrea Petersen, “Training the Brain to Cope with Depression,” Wall Street Journal, January 19, 2016

Daniel Akst, “Delay That’s in Our DNA,” The Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2014.

Amy Dockser Marcus, “The Hard New Family Talk:  Our Genes,” The Wall Street Journal, September 28, 2015.

Lyndsey Layton, “Study Influences Achievement-Gap Debate,” The Washington Post, April 16, 2015.

Alison Gopnik, “The Income Gap in the Growth of Children’s Brains,” The Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2015.

Blair, C., et al. “Maternal and Child Contributions to Cortisol Response to Emotional Arousal in Young Children from Low-Income Rural Communities,” Developmental Psychology, Vol. 44, 1095-1109.

Allen, Mark S. and Laborde, Sylvain, “The Role of Personality in Sport and Physical Activity,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2014, Vol. 23(6) 460-465

Gates, G.J., “How Many People Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender?” Retrieved from http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/qp-content/Gates.

Olson, Kristina R., et al. “Gender Cognition in Transgender Children,” Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26 467-474.

The whole March/April 2016 issue of Psychotherapy Networker is devoted to “The Mystery of Gender.”

Melissa Healy, “Study Links Autism, Anti-Depressants in Pregnancy,” The Los Angeles Times, December 15, 2015.

Sbarra, David A, et.al. “Divorce and Health: Beyond Individual Differences,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2015, Vol 24, 109-113

Luc Goossens, et al. “The Genetics of Loneliness:  Linking Evolutionary Theory to Genome-Wide Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Science,” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 10(2) 213-226.

Laurie Meyers, “The Toll of Childhood Trauma,” Counseling Today, July 2014, 29-36.

Latvala, Antti, et al. “Paternal Antisocial Behavior and Sons’ Cognitive Ability: A Population-Based Quasiexperimental Study,” Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26(1) 78-88.

Alison Gopnik, “The Smartest Questions to Ask About Intelligence,” The Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2015.

Alison Gopnik, “Genes’ Unknown Role in a Vicious Circle of Poverty,” The Wall Street Journal, September 27 – 28, 2014.

Robert Maranto and Michael Crouch, “Ignoring an Inequality Culprit:  Single Parent Families,” The Wall Street Journal, April 21, 2014.

Shanna Swan, “Parents Needn’t Wait for Legislation to Shield Kids from Toxins in Products,” San Francisco Chronicle, January 9, 2006.

In a tiny two paragraph story off the wires, the headline reads, “Artificial Ingredient Sliced.”   The story is about Pizza Hut ending the use of artificial ingredients over the next year in its U.S. restaurants.  Pizza Hut executives have studied the science and agree that BHA and BHT must be cut from meat to protect customers, as must artificial preservatives from cheese.  This is the kind of responsible citizenship that should make front-page news, in my humble opinion.  The epigenetics issues that preservatives, artificial ingredients, red dye, artificial sweeteners, and even simple things like aluminum can cause our children should be front page news whenever possible.

            Sex differences in the brain (what we now popularly call “gender differences”) appear at all ages, including in earliest childhood and latest life-stages.  For early childhood to late adolescent differences see especially:

Yu, Vickie., et al. “Age-Related Sex Differences in Language Lateralization:  A Magnetoencephalography Study in Children,” Developmental Psychology, 2014, Vol.50, 2276-2284.

Ingalhalikar, Madhura, et al. “Sex Differences in the Structural Connectome of the Human Brain,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, Vol 111, 823-828.

Killgore, William, et al. “Sex-Specific Developmental Changes in Amygdala Responses to Affective Faces,” NeuroReport, 2001, Vol. 12, 427-433.

Gummadavelli, Abhijeet, et al. “Spatiotemporal and Frequency Signatures of Word Recognition in the Developing Brain,” Brain Research, 2013, Vol. 1498, 20-32.

Sacher, Julia, et al. “Sexual Dimorphism in the Human Brain,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2013, Vol 31, 366-375.

Alina Dizik, “The Secret Subtext of Menus,” The Wall Street Journal, March 25, 2015.

Ron Winslow, “Genes May Explain Why Cancer Varies by Gender,” The Wall Street Journal, May 17, 2016.

Bartz, Jennifer A., “Oxytocin and the Pharmacological Dissection of Affiliation,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2016, Vol. 25, 104-110.

Shors, Tracey J. and Miesegaes, George, “Testosterone in Utero and at Birth Dictates How Stressful Experience Will Affect Learning in Adulthood,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, no. 21 (October 15, 2002): 13955–60.

Shors, Tracey J., “Stress and Sex Effects on Associative Learning: For Better or for Worse,” Neuroscientist 4, no. 5 (September, 1998): 353–64.

Nicolas Wade, “Peeking into Pandora’s Box,” The Wall Street Journal, May 14-15, 2016.  Wade explores themes in the new book by Siddhartha Mukherjee, The Gene, (Scribner, 2016).  He makes a point that is perhaps common sense but also can get lost as we try to understand what is “sex” and what is “gender” from a biological viewpoint.

Daniel Amen, Healing ADD, New York: Berkley, 2013.  I highly recommend Dr. Amen’s approach to ADD, which not only uses brain scans to aid in diagnosis and treatment, but also divides ADD into various types so that parents and professionals can fully understand the exact kind of ADD/ADHD a particular child is experiencing.  Like genome testing, the use of brain scans to aid in correct treatment can be very helpful.

Medications given for ADD/ADHD (like any brain disorder or condition) can affect the human body and brain in ways unforeseen or misunderstood until much later and so are not necessarily “benign.”  Even though they are needed by many of our children, they can also, ironically, cause issues with lack of motivation as well as other side effects.  Thus, it is so important that we deal with the over-diagnosis of ADD/ADHD.  In 2013, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention noted that just under 20 percent of high school boys had received an ADD/ADHD diagnosis.  That figure represents misdiagnosis of American boys at epic proportions.


Robinson, Terry and Kolb, Bryan, “Structural Plasticity Associated with Exposure to Drugs of Abuse,” Neuropharmacology, 2004, 47:33-46.

Carlezon, William, et al. “Understanding the Neurobiological Consequences of Early Exposure to Psychotropic Drugs, Neuropharmacology, 2004, Vol. 47, 47-60.

Gramage, Esther, et al. “Periadolescent Amphetamine Treatment Causes Transient Cognitive Disruptions and Long-Term Changes in Hippocampal LTP,” 2013, Addiction Biology, Vol 18, 19-29.

Robinson, Terry and Kolb, Bryan, “Persistent Structural Modifications in Nucleus Accumbens and Prefrontal Cortex Neurons Porduced by Previous Experiences with Amphetamine,” 1997, Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 17, 8491-8497.

Pardey, Margery, et al, “Long-term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats,” 2012, Brain Sciences, Vol. 2, 375-404.

To learn more about OPRMI genes, go to the American Psychiatric Associations, and search OPRMI genes, for example, https://www.psychiatry.org/…/am_newrese..  See May 13, 2000 – NR654 Association of OPRMI +118A Allele, Charles A. Cloutier, Department of Psychiatry, Duke University.

Gillespie, Charles F., et al. “Risk and Resilience:  Genetic and Environmental Influences on Development of Stress Response,” Depression Anxiety, 2009, Vol. 26, 984-992.

Kuzelova, H., et al. “The Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT variant) and psychiatric disorders: review of current literature,” Neuro Endocrinology, 2010, Vol. 31, 4-10.

            Garwood, Philip, “Neurobiological Mechanisms of Anhedonia,” Clinical Neuroscience, 2008, Sep; 10(3): 291–299.

Carlezon, William, “Biological Substrates of Reward and Aversion: A Nucleus Accumbens Activity Hypothesis,” Neuropharmacology, 2009, Vol. 56, 122-132.
.         Cornwell, Christopher, et al. “Non-cognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School,” May 1, 2012.

Sleek, Scott, “Blurred Concepts of Consent,” Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, December 2014, Vol 27, 20-22.

Gates, G.J., “How Many People Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender?” Retrieved from http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/qp-content/Gates.

Olson, Kristina R., et al. “Gender Cognition in Transgender Children,” Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26 467-474.

Also see the 1994 Harvard Medical Letter on the genetics and biology of homosexuality.

Rachel Emma Silverman, “Working Parents Share the Load, Study Says,” The Wall Street Journal, November 5, 2015.

Noretta Koertge, A House Built On Sand, Oxford University Press, 2000.

Diane Halpern, et al., including Camilla Benbow and Ruben Gur, “The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Volume 8, No. 1, August 2007).

Joy Moses and Jacquelyn Boggess, in Elizabeth Stuart, “How Anti-Poverty Programs Marginalize Fathers,” The Atlantic, February 25, 2014.

“Mental Health Crisis,” The Washington Post (health-science@washpost.com) June 9, 2015.

Leonard Pitts, Jr., “Insane to Reject Mental Illness,” Syndicated, The Spokesman-Review, February 9, 2015.

Melinda Beck, “Advocates Speak on Mental Illness,” The Wall Street Journal, August 4, 2015.

Shirley S. Wang, “To Close a Gap in Mental-Health Care,” The Wall Street Journal, January 12, 2016.

Reed, Eva E, “Man Up: Young Men’s Lived Experiences and Reflections of Counseling,” Journal of Counseling & Development, October 14, 2014, Vol. 92, 428-437.

Sumiya, Ahmad, et al. “Emotional Intelligence and Gender Differences,” 2009, Suhrad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 25, No. 1.

Gladue, B, et al. “Hormonal Response to Competition in Human Males,” Aggressive Behavior, 1989, Vol. 15, 409-422.

The July 2008 Anesthesia & Analgesia Journal is devoted to the topic of Sex, Gender, and Pain Response.  Fifteen clinical studies comprise the volume and make powerful reading for anyone interested in how men and women respond to pain differently.  Volume 107: 1.

Also, see the work of Jay Giedd, M.D., at the National Institute of Mental Health (nimh.gov).  He and his lab team have posted some of their brain scans on their site, some of which show differences in the male and female brain.  According to the NIMH website, “The lab studies sexual dimorphism in the developing brain (especially important in child psychiatry (where nearly all disorders have different ages of onsets, prevalence and symptomatology between boys and girls).”

Jeffrey Mogil appears in Sumathi Reddy, “The Problems of Treating Several Chronic Conditions,” The Wall Street Journal, August 11, 2015.

Kivlighan, Katie, et al. “Gender Differences in Testosterone and Cortisol Response to Competition,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2005, Vol. 30, 58-71.

            Cashdan, E., “Are Men More Competitive Than Women?” British Journal of Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 34, 213-229.

Geary, David and Flinn, M.V., “Sex Differences in Behavioral and Hormonal Response to Social Threat,” Psychological Review, 2002, Vol. 109, 745-750.

David Brooks, “Is Chemistry Destiny?,” The New York Times, September 17, 2015.

Bushman, Brad, “Does Venting Anger Feed or Extinguish the Flame? Catharsis, Rumination, Distraction, Anger, and Aggressive Responding,” Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 28, 724-731

Lyubomirsky, S., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. “Effects of Self-

Focused Rumination on Negative Thinking and Interpersonal Problem Solving.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1995, Vol. 69, 176-190.

Bushman, Brad, et al. “Chewing on it Can Chew You Up: Effects of Rumination on Displaced Aggression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2005, Vol. 88, 969–983.

Laura Landro, “Why Learning to Be Resilient is Good for Your Health,” The Wall Street Journal, February 16, 2016.

Judy Foreman, “The Discomfort Zone,” The Wall Street Journal, February 1 – 2, 2014.

Hawley, Patricia H., “The Duality of Human Nature:  Coercion and Pro-sociality in Youths’ Hierarchy Ascension and Social Success,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 23(6) 433-438.

Geller, A.M., et al. “Gender-Dependent Behavioral and Sensory Effects of a Commercial Mixture of Polychlorinated Biphenyls,” Toxicological Science, 2001, Vol. 59, 268-277.

Palanza, Paola, et al. “Effects of Developmental Exposure to Biphenol A on Brain and Behavior in Mice,” 2008, Environmental Research, Vol. 108, 140 -157

The May and June 2015 Scientific American provides readable and powerful articles on the workings of genetics, gene expression, and effects of neuro-toxins on genes.  Also, Leonard Sax has updated Boys Adrift with further analysis of this topic.

Grandjean, Phillippe, et al. “Neurobehavioral Effects of Developmental Toxicity,” Lancet Neurology, Vol. 13, 333- 338, March 2014.

See also the online summary: “Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals Pose Threat to Male Reproductive Health” in News Medical: Science and Health, December 11, 2015.

Colborn, Theo, et al. “Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 1993, Vol. 101, 378-384.

Fisher, Jane, “Environmental Anti-androgens and Male Reproductive Health:  Focus on Phthalates and Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome,” Reproduction, 2004, Vol. 127, 305-325.

Golub, Mari, et al. “Endocrine Disruption in Adolescence,” Toxicological Sciences, 2004, Vol.82, 598-607.

Travison, Thomas, et al. “A Population-Level Decline in Serum Testosterone Levels in American Men,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2007, Vol. 92, 196-202.

Ozen, Samim and Darcan, Sukran, “Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Pubertal Development,” Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, 2011, Vol. 3, 1-6.

Masuo, Yoshinori and Ishido, Masami, “Neurotoxicity of Endocrine Disruptors:  Possible Involvement in Brain Development and Neurodegeneration,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Research, 2008, Vol. 14, 346-349.

Aksglaede, Lise et al. “The Sensitivity of the Child to Sex Steriods:  Possible Impact of Exogenous Estrogens,” Human Reproduction Update, 2006, Vol. 12, 341-349.

“Chemicals Present in Clear Plastics Can Impair Learning and Cause Disease,” March 28, 2005, retrieved from www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/05-30-28-02.all.html.

Hojo, R., et al. “Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Responses to Prenatal Dioxin Exposure,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2002, Vol. 110, 247-254.

Roy, Jonathan, et al. “Estrogen-like Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Affecting Puberty in Humans—A Review,” Medical Science Review, 2009, Vol. 15, 137-145.

Makin, Simon, “What Really Causes Autism,” Scientific American Mind, November/December, 2015.

Thomas E. Brown, “ADHD: From Stereotype to Science,” Educational Leadership, October 2015

Yoshinori, Masuo, et al. “Motor Hyperactivity Caused by a Deficit in Dopaminergic Neurons and the Effects of Endocrine Disruptors,” Regulatory Peptides, 2004, Vol. 123, 225-234.

Swan, Shanna H., et al. “Decrease in Anogenital Distance Among Male Infants with Prenatal Phthalate Exposure,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2005, Vol. 11, 1056-1061.

Duty, S.M, et al. “Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men,” Human Reproduction, 2005, Vol. 20, 604-610.

Duty, S.M., et al. “Phthalate Exposure and Human Semen Parameters,” Epidemiology, 2003, Vol. 14, 269-277.

McEwen, Bruce, “Steroid Hormones and Brain Development:  Some Guidelines for Understanding Actions of Pseudo-hormones and Other Toxic Agents,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 1987, Vol. 74, 177-184.  As far back as the 1980s, we knew estrogen receptors could harm our children, but we did not act with scientific rigor.

MacLusky, Neil, et al. “The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2005, Vol. 113, 675-679.

Fisher, Claire I, et al. “Women’s Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in their Salivary Testosterone,” Psychological Science, Vol. 26(12) 1958-1964.

Michael Hawthorne, “Exposed:  Studies Show Link Between Childhood Lead Levels and Violent Crime Years Later,” Chicago Tribune, June 15, 2015.

Kris Maher, “City Urges Aid after Lead Found in Water,” The Wall Street Journal, December 16, 2015.

Cameron McWhirter and Mike Vilensky, “Water Contamination Found in Vermont Wells,” The Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2016.  Flint, Michigan is not the only area of the country that must look carefully at the water our children drink.  PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), which is used in various industrial products, joins chemicals in aluminum, lead, and other metals as potentially toxic to the brains of our children.

Anna Gorman, “Doctors Encourage Shoppers to Skip ‘Bad Food’,” Tribune News Service, January 5, 2016

Roets, Arne, et al. “Can Authoritarianism Lead to Greater Liking of Out-Groups?  The Intriguing Case of Singapore,” Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26, 1972-1974.

            Lee Alan Dugatkin and Matthew Hasenjager, “The Networked Animal,” Scientific American, June 2015.

The Winter 2015-2016 edition of American Educator is devoted to exploring changes that are needed in interventionist school discipline procedures and paradigms.

Tyrone Howard, “Decriminalizing School Discipline,” Education Week, April 1, 2015.

Dr. Yuko Munakato’s research can be found in Amy Drew, “Under New Management:  Executive Control Across the Lifespan,” Observer: Association for Psychological Science, Vol 28, No. 9, November 2015.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences are reported in Robert M. Sapolsky, “Brain Reflexes That Monitor the Pecking Order,” The Wall Street Journal, December 12 – 13, 2015.

Discussion of winning and losing is found in Nina Sovich, “The Hardest Game for Parents,” The Wall Street Journal, December 17, 2015.

Ned Holstein, M.D., National Director of the National Parents Organization, has thoroughly studied the family court system and made these powerful points in a recent blog on our Commission to Create a White House Council list serve.  I hope you will find these helpful and go to www.nationalparentsorganization.org to see the combination of grass-roots and legislative effort the NPO provides.

Sue Shellenbarger, “Moms, Let Dads Be Dad,” The Wall Street Journal, June 17, 2015.

Further online research on the need for fathers appears in these online resources.  These links may be archived but should remain easily accessible for a long time so that you can use them social media blasts and discussions immediately.

Larry Elder-says problem in black community is fatherlessness. https://www.facebook.com/federalistfox/videos/261321660906306/

BYU research finds link between father absences and declining male college enrollment.  http://www.heraldextra.com/news/local/education/college/byu/byu-research-finds-link-between-father-absences-and-declining-male/article_7cafa756-967a-5399-a9a1-596db17bbd83.html.

Fathers play a large role in their children’s development, from language and cognitive growth in toddlerhood to social skills in fifth grade, according to new findings from Michigan State University scholars.https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160714110912.html.

Barbara Kay, “Want to help society? Let kids know their fathers,” National Post, June 16, 2016.


Megan Daley, “Five Things Pediatricians Want Dads to Know about Fathering, The Los Angeles Times, June 13, 2016, reporting multiple studies in Science and other journals corroborating the importance of fathers in building emotional intelligence, social success, and cognitive development in boys and girls.

Martin Daubney, “How Dad Deprivation May Be Eroding Society, The Daily Telegraph, June 22, 2016.

Lack of healthy father influence leads to poorer behavior among boys and, as new studies have confirmed, poor behavior early in life leads to significant issues later.  For a very accessible glimpse into the research see Nick Morrison, “Poor Behavior Hits Boys Hardest,” Forbes Magazine, Jun 22, 2016.

Jay N. Giedd, “The Amazing Teen Brain,” Scientific American, June 2015.

Jaffe, Eric, “Portrait of Self-Control as a Young Process,” Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, July/August 2015, Vol. 28, No. 6.

Casey, B.J., “Beyond Simple Models of Self-Control to Circuit-Based Accounts of Adolescent Behavior, Annual Review of Psychology, 2015, Vol 66, 295-319.

Matt Richtel, “A Silicon Valley School that Doesn’t Compute,” The New York Times, October 22, 2011.

Jim Taylor, “Is the American Academy of Pediatrics Copping Out on Screens,” Psychology Today, October 13, 2015

Up-to-date “blue light” research is referenced in Alexia Elejalde-Ruiz’s “Harsh on the Eyes,” Chicago Tribune, January 12, 2016.

Catlin Tucker, “Creating a Safe Digital Space,” Educational Leadership, October 2015.

Kevin Clark, “The NFL’S Laboratory for Millennials,” The Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2015.

Joel Cooper and Kimberlee Weaver, Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide.

            George, Madeleine J. and Odgers, Candice L., “Seven Fears and the Science of How Mobile Technologies May Be Influencing Adolescents in the Digital Age,” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 10(6) 832-851

Sue Shellenbarger, “We Want Our Children to Code, Even if We Can’t,” The Wall Street Journal, February 10, 2016.  In this article is an example of a family in which children are introduced to intense computer use through coding by age 6.  If we could study children like longitudinally, I believe we will find, in 20 years, a high probability of later social-emotional issues for children whose brains are linked to technologies so young.

Charlie Wells, “Smartphones Go to School,” The Wall Street Journal, February 18, 2016.

Deborah Perkins-Gough, “Secrets of the Teenage Brain,” Educational Leadership, October 2015.

Casey, B.J., et al. “Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Delay of Gratification 40 Years Later,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, Vol. 108, 14998-15003.

Galvan, A., et al. “Earlier Development of the Accumbens Relative to Orbitofrontal Cortex Might Underlie Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents,” The Journal of Neuroscience, 2006, Vol. 26, 6885-6892.

Amy Ellis Nutt, “Loneliness Can Be Lethal Health Risk, Scientists Say,” The Washington Post, February 1, 2016.

You can learn more about obesity genetics and the new trend of genetic testing in workplaces in Rachel Emma Silverman, “Genetic Testing May Be Coming to Your Office,” The Wall Street Journal, December 16, 2015.

See also:

Mead, Nathaniel, “Origins of Obesity:  Chemical Exposures,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2004, Vol.112, A344.

Berkey, Catherine, et al. “Activity, Dietary Intake, and Weight Changes in a Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent and Adolescent Boys and Girls,” Pediatrics, 2000, Vol. 105, e56.

Mario, Stervo, et al. “Frequent Video Game Playing in Young Males is Associated with Cetnral Adiposity and High-Sugar, Low-Fibre Dietary Consumption,” Eating and Weight Disorders, 2014, Vol. 19, 515-520.

Vandewater, Elizabeth, et al. “Linking Obesity and Activity Level with Children’s Television and Video Game Use,” Journal of Adolescence, 2004, Vol. 27, 71-85.

Bob Granleese, “Why Are British Kids So Unhappy?  Two Words: Screen Time,” The Guardian, January 16, 2016.

Lindsay Holmes, “Sneaky Ways Technology Is Messing with Your Body and Mind,” Huffington Post, December 5, 2014.

Joel M. Moskowitz and Larry Junck, “Do Cellphones Need Warning Labels?” The Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2016.

Susan Pinker, “To Beat the Blues, Visits must be Real, Not Virtual,” The Wall Street Journal, June 4-5, 2016.  This is a pithy and very powerful article on the science of loneliness—and the necessity of real life to combat it.  Virtual life can often amplify depression, not help it.

Matsuda, Goh and Hiraki, Kazuo, “Sustained Decrease in Oxygenated Hemoglobin During Video Games in the Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex: A NIRS study of Children,” Neuroimage, 2006, Vol. 29, 706-711.

Hummer, Tom, et al. “Short-Term Violent Video Game Play by Adolescents Alters Prefrontal Activity During Cognitive Inhibition,” Media Psychology, 2010, Vol. 13, 136-154

Bartholow, Bruce, et al. “Chronic Violent Video Game Exposure and Desensitization to Violence,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2006, Vol. 42, 532-539.

Gentile, Douglas, et al. “The Effects of Violent Videogame Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance,” Journal of Adolescence, 2004, Vol. 27, 5-22.

David Williamson Shaffer, How Computer Games Help Children Learn.

Sadie Dingfelder, “Your Brain on Video Games,” February 2007, Monitor on Psychology, http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb07/yourbrain.html.

A somewhat different view than mine on technology and electronics appears in Danah Boyd’s “Let Kids Run Wild Online, Time, March 24, 2014.

A very good use of video games for the brain appears in “Videogames So Tough They Teach You to Win in Life,” by Chris Suellentrop, The Wall Street Journal, May 14-15, 2016.

Zilioli, Samuele, et al. “Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men,” Psychological Science, 2016, Vol 27(1) 114-118.

The January/February 2016 edition of the Psychotherapy Networker is dedicated almost exclusively to Sex and Sexuality.  I highly recommend this issue of the magazine for anyone interested in learning more about pornography, male/female differences in sexual interest, and the hook up culture among our teens and young adults.

Erin Anderssen, “Our Porn-Saturated Media Landscape is Wreaking Havoc on Teen Boys, too,” The Globe and Mail, April 14, 2016.

Julie Schwartz Gottman and John Gottman, “Lessons from the Love Lab,” Psychotherapy Networker, November/December, 2015

Cynthia M. Allen, “Faith, Education Dovetail After All,” Forth Worth Star-Telegram, April 20, 2014.

E-school News reported the gap in February, 22, 2016 based on federal data.  “Low-income students enroll in school having heard 30 million fewer words than their peers from more affluent homes, researchers have found. The gap is even wider for English-language learners.”

Robert J. Samuelson, “Jobless Young Pose Global Risks,” The Wall Street Journal, June 9, 2015

            Gerald Skoning, “The Mythical ‘Pay Equity’ Crisis,” The Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2014.

Sherry Jones and Janet Chung, “Pregnant Workers Measure Overdue,” The Spokesman-Review, February 13, 2016.

Amartya Sen, “Women’s Progress,” The Wall Street Journal, January 2-3, 2016.

Joanna L. Krotz, “Being Equal Doesn’t Mean Being the Same,” joannakrotz.com, January 21, 2016.

  1. Bradford Wilcox, “The Matrimony Gap,” The Wall Street Journal, June 21-22, 2014.

Christina Zander, “Even Scandinavia Has a CEO Gender Gap,” The Wall Street Journal, May 22, 2014.

Julie Rovner, “NIH May Not Be Sorting Clinical Trial Data by Sex,” Kaiser Health News, November 29, 2015.

Isaac Cohen, “An ‘Ether of Sexism’ Doesn’t Explain Gender Disparities in Science and Tech,” Forbes Magazine, July 30, 2014.



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Additional studies added December 2015 with thanks to the meta-study in Neuroscience and BioBehavioral Review, February 2014, Volume 39:

A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in human brain structure by Amber N.V. Ruigrok, Gholamreza Salimi-Khorshidi, Meng-Chuan Lai, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V. Lombardo, Roger J. Tait, John Suckling

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